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Over the four hundred years of the Roman Empire, the spirit that enthused the Romans changed from a free-wheeling revel in physical beauty that the Romans inherited from the Greeks to a sort of mystic militarism that presaged the art and architecture of the Byzantines. This change of psyche is beautifully reflected in the evolution of Roman sculpture and architecture from the second to the fourth century AD. To illustrate this change we will compare Hadrian’s Villa at Tivoli with Diocletian’s Villa at Split and then examine the perfect textbook case of Roman art and architecture, the Arch of Constantine. We will also consider the impact of this mystic militarism on early Christian sculpture and architecture.